The majority of cases of oligospermia are detected once the man tries to become a father and, when the pregnancy is not achieved in a natural way, both members of the couple undergo tests to check their fertility conditions.
The number of male’s sperm are directly related to the chances of a pregnancy achievement, although this isn’t the only involved factor. In order to achieve the pregnancy, it is necessary that the sum of the reproductive male and female potential is sufficient.
A man with oligospermia can achieve a natural pregnancy with his partner and no need to turn to an assisted reproduction clinic.
Provided that there is even only one sperm in the ejaculation, there is the chance to do that, although with a lower number of sperm, there will be less possibilities of conceiving.
Assisted reproduction techniques
Through assisted reproduction techniques, many men with oligospermia could become fathers. When the problem is the male factor, several specific techniques are used, among those that need a lower amount of sperm.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): it consists of putting into direct contact eggs and sperm. In this way, it doesn’t matter the total amount of sperm within the sample, even if it is necessary that their quantity in the RMS (number of retrieved motile spermatozoa) is between 2 and 3 millions sperm. This technique is used in mild and moderate oligospermia cases.
ICSI: this fertility treatment is more complex, it is about the selection of a good sperm and its introduction into the egg. For this reason, it is not necessary to have such a high number of sperm like in the IVF: embryologists search into the sperm sample an only sperm able to fertilize the egg. This method is used in the most complicated situations, like severe oligospermia.
Artificial insemination is not usually recommended to patients with oligospermia, because this treatment requires a high number of sperm – although it can be suggested in case of very mild oligospermia, provided that the woman is younger than 35.